The closest is probably Journal. A quick demo, though you'd have to do some CSS tinkering to get things like the colored background box behind each item (in fact, you'd probably have to do some more extensive HTML tinkering because of the floats, which cause things like the comments to be a variable height):
The other option would be Zigzag, again with some messing about to force images to be on the left at all times, and to put some breathing room between items. Also somewhat tricky to pull off.
Edited by: jGromit on 16-Apr-2020 11:03 - user never returned, so demo's deleted.
Plenty of options - float thumbnail left/right, align caption left/center/right, different caption width, etc.
It's also easy to force the thumbnails to be in only one column - just set the maximum thumbnail table width to be only about 200px larger than the width of a single thumbnail and its caption (the extra is needed for things like padding, top-of-page arrows, and so on).
ETA: In the demo album, if you want to play "shrink the browser window" to see what happens, hit F5 after changing sizes. At the lower end (i.e., smartphone size), the layout isn't redrawn dynamically. A desktop user isn't turning his browser into a smartphone while he's viewing the album, or vice-versa.